25 Apr
ecca group south africa coal

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Information Circular No. 126 - Wits UniversityIn addition, Martin (1961) has drawn attention to the presence of thin coal seams near the top of the White Band in South West Africa. In order to understand the geological conditions controlling the localization of coal deposits within the Ecca and Lowermost Beaufort Beds it is essential to interpret known coal-bearing areas.ecca group south africa coal,Coal deposits of South Africa - the future of coal mining in South AfricaThe Karoo System contains coal-bearing sediments of Carboniferous-. Permian (Gondwana) age. (Larry Thomas, 2002) The Karoo basin covers two- thirds of South Africa and hosts the fluvio-deltaic sediments and coal deposits of the extensive Ecca Group(ca. 280-250 Ma). The Ecca Group Coal measures con- stitute more.Karoo Basin, South Africa - Keele Research RepositoryFig. 2. N–S schematic cross-section of the north-eastern Main Karoo Basin, showing the separation of the Witbank and High- veld coalfields by the Smithfield Ridge (modified after Hancox & Götz 2014), and stratigraphic column showing the position of the studied Coal Seam No. 2 within the Ecca Group. Abbreviations used:.


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Lithostratigraphy of the Pietermaritzburg Formation (Ecca Group .

Jun 1, 2017 . Abstract. The Lower Permian Pietermaritzburg Formation is a mudrock-dominated, upward-coarsening stratigraphic unit in the lower Ecca Group (Karoo Supergroup) in the northeastern part of the main Karoo Basin of South Africa. The formation extends over most of the KwaZulu-Natal Province, and due to.

Ecca Group - Wikipedia

The Ecca Group sandstones and shales originated as clastic sediment deposited in a large and shallow inland sea. Swamps and forest vegetation developed at many places and times during its deposition, resulting in widespread coal deposits. Almost all of South Africa's coal resources and one-third of the coal resources.

ecca group south africa coal,

South Africa's coalfields – a 2014 perspective - University of Pretoria

For well over a century and a half coal has played a vital role in South Africa's economy and currently bituminous coal is . energy (including wind and solar power) coal remains the primary energy source in South Africa ... and coastal plain (Ecca Group), to nonmarine fluvial and aeolian (Beaufort and Stormberg groups).

Stratigraphy of the Karoo Supergroup in southern Africa: an overview

The foreland Karoo Basin, South Africa. In: Sedimentary basins of Africa (Edited by Selley, R.C.) Elsevier, Amsterdam. Key et al., 1995. R.M Key, I McGeorge, G Aitken, A Cadman, J Tidi, J AnscombeThe Karoo Supergroup of south-west Botswana: new detailed information on the Dwyka and Ecca Groups. Centennial.

ecca group south africa coal,

The Karoo Basin of South Africa: type basin for the coal-bearing .

D.K. HobdayFluvial deposits of the Ecca and Beaufort Groups in the eastern Karoo Basin, Southern Africa. A.D. Miall (Ed.), Fluvial Sedimentology, Can. Soc. Pet. Geol. Mem., 5 (1978), pp. 413-430. Hobday, 1987. D.K. HobdayGondwana coal Basins of Australia and South Africa: tectonic setting, depositional systems and.

Shale Gas Characteristics of Permian Black Shales in South Africa .

Detailed lithological, sedimentological, petrographic and geochemical analyses of the lower three formations of the. Ecca Group in the Greystone area, Eastern Cape, South Africa, close to the tectonic front of the Cape Fold Belt, are described with a particular focus on the black shales of the Whitehill Formation. Fresh core.

South African Coal - XMP Consulting

producing Coalfield in South Africa. The Coalfield is host to up to five coal seams within the middle. Ecca Group sediments of the Karoo Supergroup. The Karoo. Supergroup comprises sediments ascribed to deposition in glacial to fluvio-glacial and from shallow marine to fluvio- deltaic environments. The Karoo Supergroup.

Assessment of Permian coalbed gas resources of the Karoo Basin .

Karoo Basin Province, South Africa and Lesotho, 2016. U.S. Department of the . the coal-bearing sequences of the Vryheid Formation of the Ecca Group. (fig. 2). . correlative Collingham, Whitehill, and Prince Albert Formations (modified from. Hancox and Götz, 2014). Black horizontal lines are coal seams. Southern. Karoo.


Jan 30, 2013 . turned into coal in certain parts of the Ecca Group. The resulting coal fields form a very important mineral resource for the country. The Heritage Act of South Africa stipulates that fossils and fossil sites may not be altered or destroyed. The purpose of this document is to detail the probability of finding fossils in.

Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse-greenhouse .

Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse-greenhouse transition (Ecca Group, South Africa) . The Permian coal-bearing formations of the South African Karoo Basin play a crucial role in the study and interpretation of Gondwana's climate history and biodiversity in this time of major global changes in terrestrial.

Structural and Sedimentological Controls of Coal Deposition in the .

Apr 29, 2009 . Structural and Sedimentological Controls of Coal Deposition in the Nongoma Graben, Northern Zululand, South Africa . Sedimentation contemporaneous with graben formation led to the deposition of a thick sequence of coal-bearing fluvio-deltaic Ecca Group (Permian) sediments, controlled mainly by.

Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South Africa .

May 20, 2014 . The Permian formations of the South African Karoo Basin play a crucial role in understanding Gondwana's climate history during this time of major global changes. In this paper we present two data sets, one from the coal-bearing Vryheid Formation (Witbank Basin) and one from the Whitehill and Upper.

Stratigraphy and Age of the Malawi Karoo

The Karoo Supergroup of Malawi (Figure 3) exhibits no glacial or marine sediments comparable to the Dwyka Group of South Africa. Coal-bearing strata low in the Karoo section in northern Malawi were correlated with the South African Ecca Group by Cairncross (2001). In southern Malawi, Cairncross (2001) placed the.

Janine Connie Ferreira - UWC ETD

tons (DME, 2008; Methane to Markets, 2008). The bulk of the coal mined in South Africa is consumed internally, while the remainder is exported to the European Union and East Asia. (EIA, 2005; Methane to Markets, 2008). Most of the Karoo Basin's coal is contained in. Artinskian-Kungurian strata of the Permian Ecca Group.

Lower Permian deposits of the Huab area, NW Namibia - Ministry of .

1Dept. of Geology, Rhodes University, P O Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa . bar and coal-bearing floodplain deposits of the Verbrandeberg Formation. . Dwyka Group. New radiometric ages derived from tuff beds in- terlayered with Dwyka and Ecca Group sediments in. Namibia and South Africa assign the.

ecca group south africa coal,

chronostratigraphic map of the republic of south africa and the .

Folding and thrusting (Cape Fold Belt) in south. Terrestrial vertebrates (including mammal-like reptiles) common (Beaufort Group). Glossopteris flora flourishes and major coal deposits formed (Ecca Group). Widespread glaciation (Dwyka Group). Northward subduction of palaeo-Pacific plate initiates foreland Karoo Basin.

Conceptual models of Witbank coalfield, South Africa - NERC Open .

Mar 29, 2012 . majority of the reserves are in the Permian Vryheid Formation of the Ecca Group. This document will focus on the Witbank coalfield, which together with the adjoining Ermelo and Highveld coalfields, contains an estimated 50% of the nation‟s recoverable coal reserves. Witbank lies towards the northern.

University of Fort Hare - Prof Ken Liu

Jan 8, 2018 . 4. Coal deposits in Karoo Supergroup. 5. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and diagenesis of Mzamba Formation, Msikaba Formation and Karoo Supergroup in KZN and EC. 6. Shale gas in Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. 7. Environment geology and marine geology in.

Mineraology and Geochemistry of the Carbonaceous mudstones .

The vast majority of coal beds in South Africa occur in the Ecca Group (lower and middle Permian) with most of the coal mining taking place in the north-west, north and north-eastern portions of the MKB (Fig. 1.1). Coal mining is assuming increasing significance in the subsidiary basins north of the main Karoo depository.

The petrology, petrography and geochemistry of . - UJContent

Coal in South Africa. 1.2. Location. 1.3. Objectives and Methodology. 1.3.1 Problem Identification. 1.3.2 Objectives. 1.3.3 Methodology. 1.4. Regional Geology .. The distribution of known diatremes and "breccia pipes" in the. Karoo Basin. Schematic north-south section through the north-eastern part of the Ecca Group.

ecca group south africa coal,

the karoo supergroup

Abstract: The Ecca Group, a subdivision of the Karoo Supergroup (Upper Carboniferous – Lower. Jurassic) in SW Botswana is a sequence deposited as marine deltaic bodies considered to have been supplied from a cratonic source elevated north of the basin. The Karoo strata in this region are covered unconformably by.

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